In Cloud Foundry, we use services to provide additional functionality as reserved resources to our apps. They get bound to the app(s) directly and are accessible from these bound apps only. The image below shows how they get provisioned through the service broker and are then accessible to the client through the app. This is obviously a great setup for services like databases, messaging brokers, app data loggers or other handy additions for our apps to consume.
The service broker shown in this diagram is not used for user-provided services.
Route services, on the other hand, work on a different level. They are not bound to an app but instead directly to a route. This allows them to act as an “interceptor” and either reject certain requests or modify them before they even reach the app. This is ideal to provide external authentication, rate limiting or logging on a route level. The image below shows the exact place of a route service in respect to the client and our application.
Binding a service instance to a route will associate the
route_service_url with the route in the Cloud Foundry router. All requests for the route will be proxied to the URL specified by
Once a route service completes its function, it is expected to forward the request to the route the original request was sent to. The Cloud Foundry router will include a header (
X-CF-Forwarded-Url) that provides the address of the route, as well as two headers (
X-CF-Proxy-Metadata) that are used by the route itself to validate the request sent by the route service.
Verifying with the image above, the router sends the request through an extra loop with the route service and only sends it to the app after it passes through a second time (now with the respective headers).
Your First Route Service
In this tutorial we will use a user-provided service to serve as a rate limiter for one (or more) of our applications. User-provided services can also be used as route services. During the creation of a user-provided service, you can use the
-r flag to set a URL to which the requests will be forwarded. We will then create an app (the actual rate limiter) which will be waiting for requests coming in at said URL.
You can use any Cloud Foundry provider for this tutorial. I am using the Swisscom Application Cloud as an example.
This tutorial assumes that you have a running app on Cloud Foundry which you can apply the rate limiter to. Any app that has a route will do. In case you don’t have one, you can simply
cf push a dummy app like this one.
Push Rate Limiter
As a first step, let’s create the actual rate limiter. Simply clone this repo which contains a small Go rate limiting app. Then push the app to your space with the following command:
$ cf push rate-limiter -m 64M
You may have to specify an alternate hostname using the
--hostname flag or use a random one using the
--random-route flag because the default one is taken.
Create User-Provided Service
Next we will create the route service as a user-provided service. This will then forward all requests coming in at any bound routes to the URL specified as
-r (don’t forget to adjust the hostname of the URL to the one you have chosen for your “rate-limiter” app):
$ cf create-user-provided-service rate-limiter-service -r https://rate-limiter.scapp.io
You should aways use
https for this URL to make the link between the CF router and your route service more secure.
Bind Service to Route
As a last step, we bind the newly created service to the route bound to the app we want to apply the rate limiter to (don’t forget to replace the hostname with your own):
$ cf bind-route-service scapp.io rate-limiter-service --hostname myapp
Test Our Rate Limiter
To test our rate limiter, we decrease the limit to 1 request per second (the default is 10). To do so, set the environment variable
1 and restage the app:
$ cf set-env rate-limiter RATE_LIMIT 1
$ cf restage rate-limiter
The next step is to put some load onto the app. I’m using loadtest but you can use any tool like ab or Goad. Again, don’t forget to replace the hostname with the one you have chosen for your app.
$ loadtest --rps 1000 https://myapp.scapp.io
You can open the logs of your rate limiter in a separate window with
cf logs rate-limiter to directly tail the requests it gets.
The app should remain functional, even with the load of 1000 requests per second. If you turn off the rate limiter by unbinding “rate-limiter-service” from the route
$ cf unbind-route-service scapp.io rate-limiter-service --hostname myapp
and then run the test again, the app will most likely not be able to serve all request in a timely manner because it’s not protected by the rate limiter anymore.
The Cloud Foundry samples library also contain a second route service you can deploy in the same way: The Logging Route Service. Do you have any other ideas for route service use cases? Please let me know in the comments!